Chopped and screwed refers to a technique of remixing hip hop music which developed in the Houston hip hop scene in the 1990s. This is accomplished by slowing the tempo of a song down to between sixty and seventy quarter-note beats per minute and applying techniques such as skipping beats, record scratching, stop-time and affecting portions of the music to make a "chopped up" version of the original. DJ Screw is largely recognised as the innovator behind the chopped and screwed genre, who discovered that dramatically reducing the pitch of a record gave a mellow, heavy sound that emphasised lyrics to the point of almost storytelling. His key technique involved playing the same record on both turntables with a delay between them of one beat, and quickly moving the crossfader side to side. This created an effect where words or sounds would be repeated in the music but would still keep the tempo going.